Articles

How to Start a Goat Farm - 10 Tips

posted Dec 4, 2012, 1:38 AM by Ibrahim Dairy and Livestock Farms   [ updated Dec 9, 2012, 7:15 PM ]

  1.  Pick which breed(s) you want. Decide if you want to do Meat goats, Milk goats, Fiber goats or maybe variety of each.

  2. Get a good goat book. Something that will teach you all the basics of goat care such as how to perform a health check, goat diseases, Breeds of each variety of goat, recommended space per each animal and probably some handy first aid notes. Most consider this a invaluable reference, Even something to look back to in the future.3
  3. Buy some supplies. Shop around for food and water buckets, compare grains if you will be feeding your goats. Pick out a good balanced mineral to be fed free choice to provide what your goats may be lacking. Goats will get hurt minor or major and will need medical attention, so make your own Goat first aid kit, your vet can help you with recommendations for what to stock it with.
  4. Build a pasture. Buy fencing supplies online or at your local farm store. Get help from someone who has built a pasture before. Goats will climb and rub on even the toughest fences if not prevented. They may also try to squeeze through even the tiniest spaces even if you don't think they can. Make sure to build a separate, strong buck pen in which the fences must be very strong, sturdy and very high. Keep in mind this fence will keep your bucks in rut from your does in Estrus (heat).
  5. Build shelter. Your goats will need a place to go in the winter and when it's raining. A small pole barn will work just fine. Make sure that the door is facing south - away from the weather. Goats can withstand the cold to some degree but not cold rain or snow, Having a draft free building will help them keep warm enormously. Make sure your buildings are compatible for renovation in future additions to your herd. Even if you don't think you will need the room, all too often you do and don't have the resources to do so with your current building.
  6. Buy a couple Does and a buck. Get another goat owner's help here. Make sure to buy good quality goats, and not something someone is just trying to get off their hands. Your goat book will be helpful here, Tell the seller what your looking for, Honest breeders and owners will let you know if the goat is not from you. Be discerning.
  7. Breed your Does! Watch your Does carefully. When they go into heat, put them in with the buck for a couple days, or until you think they have taken. The longer they have been with the buck, the larger range the expected due date will be, Naturally this is important to some and not to others. A normal gestation period is 145 to 155 days, 150 being average. Remember, bred and milking does need some extra care then a open doe or a buck.
  8. Choose where to sell your product. whether for meat, fiber, milk and cheese and even Goat kids (baby goats), There are websites online devoted to goat sales, or you could go personal. You choose. Whichever way, make sure you have someone who will buy.
  9. Sell your product. Research what others are selling for in your area. You don't want to charge so much that you won't get business or so low that you loose money
  10. Build up your farm. As you get more customers, your demand will grow. Enlarge your pastures and buildings to accommodate the new additions and breed more goats.

 

Goat Breads of Pakistan

posted Dec 2, 2012, 8:44 AM by Ibrahim Dairy and Livestock Farms

Goat Breads of Pakistan

Silage

posted Oct 2, 2012, 11:43 PM by Ibrahim Dairy and Livestock Farms   [ updated Dec 4, 2012, 12:22 AM ]

 

What is Silage?

Silage is cut green plant material that is sealed in a concrete pit without air and water. Silage can be stored for approximately two years and still have up to 85% of the energy and protein value of the original fodder crop.

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Why make silage?

The major fodders during the dry season are crop residues and poor quality roughages. Green fodder is needed to enhance rumen function. Excess high quality fodder can be preserved for use during the dry season. Excess forages can be conserved as hay or silage. However, ensiling generally produces better quality roughage than hay because less time is required to wilt the feed, causing little reduction in feed quality. Hay making requires a longer period of rain-free days, which are often rare in many areas during the wet season when feed excesses generally occur. During the wet season, tropical forage species grow very fast, with forage yields often exceeding animal requirements. If not cut and fed to animals, it will continue to grow, producing very long fibrous material, low in feeding value. Silage making is a viable option under such circumstances. If cut plant material is stored with air and water it becomes rotten and can be used as fertilizer but not animal feed. There are three main roles played by silage making. These are:

1. To build up feed reserves for utilization during periods of feed deficiency, e.g. dry season.

2. As a routine feed supplement to increase productivity of animals.

3. To utilize excess growth of pasture for better management and extended utilization.

4. Silage quality is maintained for longer than is hay quality, because hay oxidizes during storage. Thus silage is better as a fodder bank than is hay.

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Types and sizes of silage storage systems

The principles of silage making are the same regardless of size of operation; the major difference is in the type of storage used. There are many ways to store silage. Silage pits or heaps for smallholders should be small. Making bag silage is another option to make small quantities of silage that can be fed out in a short time (1 or 2 days) without spoilage.

How much silage should be made?

The quantity of silage to store depends on several factors such as how many animals are to be fed, how much they are to be fed, for how long they are to be fed, the storage space available, the amount of excess feed to conserve, forage DM content, available labor, etc. The following example shows the calculations for total silage requirements for a smallholder sheep farm. Assume that a farmer has 10 sheep that need to be supplemented for 90 days on 1 kg fresh material at 20% dry matter (200 g silage DM/d) for each sheep.

To calculate total silage requirements:

10 sheep x 1 kg/ sheep/day x 90 days = 900 kg fresh silage required.

In most storage systems, there will be a loss of about 15% due to fermentation.

Consequently, the fresh weight that needs to be stored for the total of 900 kg required is:

1. 900 kg divided by 0.85 = 1059 kg fresh silage for 90 days.

2. This is equal to 1059/90 = 11.8 kg fresh silage/day.

3. If the farmer is using plastic bags to make silage, he will need silage stored in 2 plastic bags of size 30 x 30 cm (see Table 1 for capacity of plastic bags) each with a capacity of 4-6 kg to feed his sheep daily. He will need 180 bags for the 90-day feeding period. The typical weights of silage in various types of storage are listed in Table 1. Weights will vary widely according to content of material, chop length, type of material ensiled and how well it is compacted.

Table 1. Weights of chopped silage in various types of storage

Storage type Silage weight (kg fresh weight) or per unit

volume

Small plastic bags

30 x 30 cm 4-6

Medium sized plastic bags

10 x 85 cm 35-45

Small plastic drum

20 L 15-20

Large plastic drum

120 L 60-120

Steel drums (200L)

140-190

Pits in the ground

300-500 kg/m3

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Requirements to make good silage

Silage making is useful only if the ensiled product is of good quality, i.e., well-preserved and of high digestibility and protein content. The main requirements are:

The fodder should be harvested at a young stage of growth. Fodder should contain enough sugars for fermentation. Tropical grasses are inherently low in soluble carbohydrates, with the exception of maize and sorghum species. If the material is of adequate quality, but lacking in sugars, molasses or another source of sugar may be added. The material to be ensiled should be easily compactable and covered to exclude air. Chopping before ensiling will help to compact the material.

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Fodder for silage making

 

The quality of silage depends on the fodder being conserved, and applies equally to silage made in bags. Fodder with high sugar content conserves well. Problem fodders include mature grasses harvested in the rains and legumes in general. Wet grasses and legumes must be wilted before ensiling. Additives, which may be used to enhance fermentation or sterilize the crop, may be added. Anycompound for smallholder use must be cheap, not toxic or corrosive, and easy to apply. Molasses is such an excellent additive where available. In India maize /corn is used for making silage. African tall variety of maize / corn is a good fodder crop as it gives good quantity of yield per acre. Silage bags are not commonly available in India.

 

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Basic Method of Silage Making

(Silage Making)

Harvesting fodder to be ensiled

Harvest at the optimum stage of maturity: One of the main advantages of harvesting silage is that timely harvest is usually possible. The quality of silage depends upon the stage of harvesting. The stage of plant growth at harvest mainly affects the amounts of digestible protein and energy.

Recommended stages of harvest are:

Legumes and grass legume mixtures, when legumes reach the 10% bloom stage.

In general, grasses should be harvested just before flowering.

For maize /corn, which is largely used for silage making in India, appropriate time for cutting is 65-75 days or 15 days after crop coming.

Moisture content: The crops should contain about 30-35% dry matter at the time of ensiling. If moisture content is high, first wilt the crop to 30-35 % dry matter content by spreading the fodder. Wilted silage should produce little or no effluent. Unwilted silage will produce some effluent, which may leak out and cause spoilage especially in case of bag silage. At higher moisture levels, seepage or a sour fermentation can occur and at lower levels, the silage will heat or mold, or both. A useful field method to check that the moisture level is right is called the squeeze test. Start by chopping some forage as you would to fill the silo. Then grab a couple handfuls of chopped forage and squeeze them tightly in your fists for about 30 seconds. Does free juice run or drip from your fingers? This forage is too wet for proper ensiling. Wait a few days to chop and try again or wilt. What if it doesn't drip? Then, slowly open your hand. Is your hand barely damp and does the ball of forage start to fall apart quickly? This forage is too dry and is likely to heat and spoil in the silo. Add some water or find wetter forage to mix with it. When you release your squeeze, if your fingers and palm are moist and the forage ball holds together, the forage is just right for chopping.

Chopping

Chop the fodder into small pieces (1-3cm) before ensiling. Chopping makes it easy to compact the silage and to remove the air. The fodder can be chopped by hand, with a large knife / 5 guillotine, or using a chaff-cutter with a rotating blade if available. By making bag silage throughout the growing season, harvesting and chopping fodder by hand is feasible. But for commercial sheep or goat farming hand cutting is not feasible. In that case motorized chaff-cutter of 5hp or above should be used.

Filling

Fill the chopped fodder into one of the concrete pit layer by layer without making any air gap in it. When using pit for ensiling, gently but firmly stamp or press on the fodder layers by using some planks to expel air. After filling compressed fodder in the pit cover the top part of pit very tightly without any air gap. Multiple layers of plastic sheets are advisable. Again pit should be covered tightly as possible. This will compact the silage. Then seal it from air.

Packing / Compaction

Packing is necessary not only to get the air out, but more important, to keep it out by excluding air pockets.

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WHOLE CROP/ARABLE SILAGE - TOP TIPS FOR SUCCESS

Why is whole crop becoming increasingly popular in the dairy sector?

• Increased Dry Matter Intakes from a second or third forage

• More milk per cow (8-10% increase in yield)

• Option for more efficient production with more liters from forage

• Higher energy levels with 30-35% starch

• More long fiber to stimulate rumen - “Scratch Factor” (see reverse)

• Alternative use for cereal crops lower cereal prices

• Well suited areas of the UK where maize production is marginal

• Ideal entry for an early grass re-seeds

Top 10 tips for making good whole crop silage from cereals

1. Use the best cereal crops: A poor crop of wheat or barley will make poor quality whole crop. Keep the crop free from weeds and disease

2. The correct cutting date is critical for good whole crop silage and growth stages change very quickly at harvest. Fermented whole crop wheat is usually harvested by using a precision (short) chop harvester fitted with a combine header, while grain for crimping is processed using specialized machinery

3. Cut a fermented cereal whole crop when the grain is at the soft/cheesy stage:

(GS. 77-85 ) at about 30-40% DM There will still be green in the stems (50% green - 50% yellow)

4. Once at the correct growth stage DON’T DELAY: Growth stages change rapidly and DM can change by 2% per day so cut without delay! Go early rather than late

5. Cut High: Cutting height of about 4 inches leaving rubbish in the bottom

6. Short chop length: to aid consolidation

7. Use quick action POWERSTART silage inoculant to ensure the whole crop is fermented as quickly as possible: POWERSTART is fast acting - preserving more of the nutrients and producing a stable whole crop. More sugars, more protein and less ammonia give a more palatable forage

8. Fill the clamp fast, evenly and roll as you fill, minimizing the length of time exposed to air: Work into thin layers and roll well. Clamps should be long and narrow. i.e. narrow face for faster feed out and minimal waste, avoiding aerobic spoilage.

9. Roll for half an hour maximum in the evening and sheet down every night: It takes just 20 minutes to use up all the oxygen in silo, then fermentation begins if no more air is getting in.

10. Completely seal the silo and weight down shoulder and top sheets as soon as possible

What is “scratch” factor?

The rumen is full of bacteria that break down and digest fibre (cellulose). The pH of the rumen must be between 5.5 and 6.5 for the bacteria to survive and function properly. If pH drops to below this then the bacteria will not work which leads to an increasingly acid rumen and eventually leads to acidosis, poor appetite and poor intakes. Long fibre in the diet (straw/grass/silage) stimulates the cow to chew the cud. It does this by scratching the rumen wall causing muscle contraction and the cow to regurgitate her food (chew the cud). Chewing the cud causes the cow to produce large amounts of saliva. Saliva contains Sodium Bicarbonate, which buffers the rumen helping to keep the pH at 5.5 - 6.5. Forage such as cereal whole crop containing some “long fibre” which stimulates the rumen in this way is said to have a higher “scratch factor”.

A typical Wholecrop analysis -fermented

Dry Matter 30-40%

ME 9 – 11MJ/kg

Crude Protein 9 –11%

pH 4.0 – 4.6

Ammonia 5 – 8%

Estimated yield:

1-15 tonnes per acre depending on variety, cutting height, dry matter, winter or spring sowed seeds.

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Animals Record Keeping

posted Oct 2, 2012, 11:22 PM by Ibrahim Dairy and Livestock Farms

Notes for Guidance

 

1. This holding register is designed to help you meet the requirements of The Sheep and Goats (Records, Identification and Movement)

(Scotland) Order 2009 that implements Council Regulation (EC) 21/2004 establishing a system for identification and registration of ovine and caprine animals. You must retain your holding register for 3 years. You must make your holding register available on request to inspecting and enforcement officers. All requirements apply at a holding (CPH) level. You may wish to keep a holding register for each holding used or you may record movements between your holdings and ensure that the holding involved in each event is clearly indicated within your register. You do not need to use this register but you must have all the mandatory information it would contain available on farm.

 

2. There are 5 key requirements of the legislation for keepers of sheep or goats:

 

·    Keeper Registration – you must contact your local Animal Health office and register as a keeper on every holding (CPH) that you use. This applies whether or not the holding is covered by a concession.

·    Tagging – your animals must be identified at 9 months of age or when they leave their holding of birth, whichever is sooner. Missing tags must be replaced within 28 days of discovering the loss. Replacement tagging and identification applied to animals born after 1st January 2010 must be recorded. You may use the record sheets starting on page 2 and 4 of this booklet as a record.

·    Completion of Movement Documents – you must complete a movement document for every movement, unless the holdings are covered by a concession. The CPH of the actual land that the sheep move to and from must be used on the document. You must retain documents for 3 years. From 1st January 2011, the individual identities of breeding animals that change ownership when they move are required on the document.

·    Notification of Movements to SAMU – you must notify a movement to SAMU within 3 days, when you receive sheep. If you receive sheep from a Scottish Market, they will notify the movement for you.

·    Records – you must record an annual inventory figure as at 1st January each year, this is the total number of sheep on each holding you use. DEFRA will request return of the same figures on a form provided to you. You must record details of all movements, not covered by a concession, and deaths.

 

3. If you are selected for a Scottish Government sheep inspection, the accuracy of your records will be verified by comparison with the number of animals present on your holdings at that time. You may wish to record births and correct the running total in the register by making entries of animals lost or found at any point in the year where animals are counted.

 

4. The record keeping requirements were changed as of 1st January 2010, the changes relate to animals born or identified for the first time

since 1st January 2010. These animals will be identified with electronic tags. For these animals, you must:

 

a. record the identification applied;

 

b. include the identification visually displayed on the tags in the movement record for each move where ownership changes;

 

c. include the full identification number in the record of death.


Record of Replacement Identification

Identification must be replaced within 28 days of discovering the loss. Record within 48 hours.

 

1. Mandatory

2. Mandatory

3. Mandatory, if known

4. Optional

5. Optional

Date of

Replacement

Replacement

number(s) – visual

Previous

identification

Reason for Replacement,

e.g. upgrade, lost, illegible

Own use

 

Example: 25/10/2010

 

UK 0 123456 00216-225

 

UK 123456 001145, 925, 633, 564

 

10 Ewes & Gimmers missing tags

 

Home bred

 

Example: 31/10/2010 UK

 

UK 0 123456 00250

 

 

Purchased animal – no tags

 

Red tag

 

Example: 15/12/2010

 

UK 123456

 

UK 123456

 

15 homebred lambs lost tags

 

 

Example: 15/5/2011

 

UK 0 123456 00226

 

UK 123456

 

Slaughter lamb upgrade

 

Home bred

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Date of

Replacement

Replacement

number(s) – visual

Previous

identification

Reason for Replacement,

e.g. upgrade, lost, illegible

Own use

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Record of Identification

Record all identification applied to animals born or identified for the first time after 31/12/2009. Record within 48 hours.

 

1. Mandatory

2. Mandatory

3. Mandatory

4. Mandatory

5. Mandatory,

if known

6. Mandatory,

if known

7. Optional

Date

Full identification

number(s) – visual

Number of

animals

identified

Year of

birth

Breed

Genotype

Own use

 

Example: 25/08/2010

 

UK 123456

 

100

 

2010

 

Blackface

 

Store lambs tagged as left for market

 

Example: 01/10/2010

 

UK 0 123456 00100 – 215

 

116

 

2010

 

Blackface

 

Hoggs tagged as left for wintering

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Date

Full identification

number(s) – visual

Number of

animals

identified

Year of

birth

Breed

Genotype

Own use

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Continuous Register for Calendar Year 20_ _

Record movement details within 48 hours. Refer to page 20 of this booklet for advice on completion.

Annual Inventory as at 1st January:                                         Date entered:                                               Record by 1st February

A separate inventory figure must be recorded for every holding (CPH) in use as at 1st January.

 

1. Mandatory

2. Mandatory

3. Mandatory

4. Mandatory, for animals identified after

1/1/2010 when moved between

businesses or dead

5. Mandatory

6. Mandatory,

for off

movements

7. Optional

8. Optional

Date

Event:

e.g.

movement

on/off, dead,

lost

Number

of

animals

Identification:

complete or refer. Individual numbers

required for double tagged animals.

Make clear number of animals with each

flock mark for single tagged animals

CPH/

Location

animals

moved to or

from

Haulier’s

name and

registration

number

Running

Total

Own

use

 

Example:

25/08/2010

 

 

off

 

 

115

 

UK123456 – 50 lambs UK234567 – 50 lambs

15 cast ewes – not applicable

 

83/536/8300

Lanark Market

 

Self

NL51 VDM

 

 

826

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Date

Event:

e.g.

movement

on/off, dead,

lost

Number

of

animals

Identification:

complete or refer. Individual numbers

required for double tagged animals.

Make clear number of animals with each

flock mark for single tagged animals

CPH/

Location

animals

moved to or

from

Haulier’s

name and

registration

number

Running

Total

Own

use

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Continuous Register for Calendar Year 20_ _

Record movement details within 48 hours. Refer to page 20 of this booklet for advice on completion.

Annual Inventory as at 1st January:                                         Date entered:                                               Record by 1st February

A separate inventory figure must be recorded for every holding (CPH) in use as at 1st January.

 

1. Mandatory

2. Mandatory

3. Mandatory

4. Mandatory, for animals identified after

1/1/2010 when moved between

businesses or dead

5. Mandatory

6. Mandatory,

for off

movements

7. Optional

8. Optional

Date

Event:

e.g.

movement

on/off, dead,

lost

Number

of

animals

Identification:

complete or refer. Individual numbers

required for double tagged animals.

Make clear number of animals with each

flock mark for single tagged animals

CPH/

Location

animals

moved to or

from

Haulier’s

name and

registration

number

Running

Total

Own

use

 

Example:

25/08/2010

 

 

off

 

 

115

 

UK123456 – 50 lambs UK234567 – 50 lambs

15 cast ewes – not applicable

 

83/536/8300

Lanark Market

 

Self

NL51 VDM

 

 

826

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Date

Event:

e.g.

movement

on/off, dead,

lost

Number

of

animals

Identification:

complete or refer. Individual numbers

required for double tagged animals.

Make clear number of animals with each

flock mark for single tagged animals

CPH/

Location

animals

moved to or

from

Haulier’s

name and

registration

number

Running

Total

Own

use

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Continuous Register for Calendar Year 20_ _

Record movement details within 48 hours. Refer to page 20 of this booklet for advice on completion.

Annual Inventory as at 1st January:                                         Date entered:                                               Record by 1st February

A separate inventory figure must be recorded for every holding (CPH) in use as at 1st January.

 

1. Mandatory

2. Mandatory

3. Mandatory

4. Mandatory, for animals identified after

1/1/2010 when moved between

businesses or dead

5. Mandatory

6. Mandatory,

for off

movements

7. Optional

8. Optional

Date

Event:

e.g.

movement

on/off, dead,

lost

Number

of

animals

Identification:

complete or refer. Individual numbers

required for double tagged animals.

Make clear number of animals with each

flock mark for single tagged animals

CPH/

Location

animals

moved to or

from

Haulier’s

name and

registration

number

Running

Total

Own

use

 

Example:

25/08/2010

 

 

off

 

 

115

 

UK123456 – 50 lambs UK234567 – 50 lambs

15 cast ewes – not applicable

 

83/536/8300

Lanark Market

 

Self

NL51 VDM

 

 

826

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Date

Event:

e.g.

movement

on/off, dead,

lost

Number

of

animals

Identification:

complete or refer. Individual numbers

required for double tagged animals.

Make clear number of animals with each

flock mark for single tagged animals

CPH/

Location

animals

moved to or

from

Haulier’s

name and

registration

number

Running

Total

Own

use

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Continuous Register for Calendar Year 20_ _

Record movement details within 48 hours. Refer to page 20 of this booklet for advice on completion.

Annual Inventory as at 1st January:                                         Date entered:                                               Record by 1st February

A separate inventory figure must be recorded for every holding (CPH) in use as at 1st January.

 

1. Mandatory

2. Mandatory

3. Mandatory

4. Mandatory, for animals identified after

1/1/2010 when moved between

businesses or dead

5. Mandatory

6. Mandatory,

for off

movements

7. Optional

8. Optional

Date

Event:

e.g.

movement

on/off, dead,

lost

Number

of

animals

Identification:

complete or refer. Individual numbers

required for double tagged animals.

Make clear number of animals with each

flock mark for single tagged animals

CPH/

Location

animals

moved to or

from

Haulier’s

name and

registration

number

Running

Total

Own

use

 

Example:

25/08/2010

 

 

off

 

 

115

 

UK123456 – 50 lambs UK234567 – 50 lambs

15 cast ewes – not applicable

 

83/536/8300

Lanark Market

 

Self

NL51 VDM

 

 

826

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Date

Event:

e.g.

movement

on/off, dead,

lost

Number

of

animals

Identification:

complete or refer. Individual numbers

required for double tagged animals.

Make clear number of animals with each

flock mark for single tagged animals

CPH/

Location

animals

moved to or

from

Haulier’s

name and

registration

number

Running

Total

Own

use

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Continuous Register for Calendar Year 20_ _

Record movement details within 48 hours. Refer to page 20 of this booklet for advice on completion.

Annual Inventory as at 1st January:                                         Date entered:                                               Record by 1st February

A separate inventory figure must be recorded for every holding (CPH) in use as at 1st January.

 

1. Mandatory

2. Mandatory

3. Mandatory

4. Mandatory, for animals identified after

1/1/2010 when moved between

businesses or dead

5. Mandatory

6. Mandatory,

for off

movements

7. Optional

8. Optional

Date

Event:

e.g.

movement

on/off, dead,

lost

Number

of

animals

Identification:

complete or refer. Individual numbers

required for double tagged animals.

Make clear number of animals with each

flock mark for single tagged animals

CPH/

Location

animals

moved to or

from

Haulier’s

name and

registration

number

Running

Total

Own

use

 

Example:

25/08/2010

 

 

off

 

 

115

 

UK123456 – 50 lambs UK234567 – 50 lambs

15 cast ewes – not applicable

 

83/536/8300

Lanark Market

 

Self

NL51 VDM

 

 

826

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Continuous Register for Calendar Year 20_ _

Record movement details within 48 hours. Refer to page 20 of this booklet for advice on completion.

Annual Inventory as at 1st January:                                         Date entered:                                               Record by 1st February

A separate inventory figure must be recorded for every holding (CPH) in use as at 1st January.

 

1. Mandatory

2. Mandatory

3. Mandatory

4. Mandatory, for animals identified after

1/1/2010 when moved between

businesses or dead

5. Mandatory

6. Mandatory,

for off

movements

7. Optional

8. Optional

Date

Event:

e.g.

movement

on/off, dead,

lost

Number

of

animals

Identification:

complete or refer. Individual numbers

required for double tagged animals.

Make clear number of animals with each

flock mark for single tagged animals

CPH/

Location

animals

moved to or

from

Haulier’s

name and

registration

number

Running

Total

Own

use

 

Example:

25/08/2010

 

 

off

 

 

115

 

UK123456 – 50 lambs UK234567 – 50 lambs

15 cast ewes – not applicable

 

83/536/8300

Lanark Market

 

Self

NL51 VDM

 

 

826

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Date

Event:

e.g.

movement

on/off, dead,

lost

Number

of

animals

Identification:

complete or refer. Individual numbers

required for double tagged animals.

Make clear number of animals with each

flock mark for single tagged animals

CPH/

Location

animals

moved to or

from

Haulier’s

name and

registration

number

Running

Total

Own

use

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Continuous Register for Calendar Year 20_ _

Record movement details within 48 hours. Refer to page 20 of this booklet for advice on completion.

Annual Inventory as at 1st January:                                         Date entered:                                               Record by 1st February

A separate inventory figure must be recorded for every holding (CPH) in use as at 1st January.

 

1. Mandatory

2. Mandatory

3. Mandatory

4. Mandatory, for animals identified after

1/1/2010 when moved between

businesses or dead

5. Mandatory

6. Mandatory,

for off

movements

7. Optional

8. Optional

Date

Event:

e.g.

movement

on/off, dead,

lost

Number

of

animals

Identification:

complete or refer. Individual numbers

required for double tagged animals.

Make clear number of animals with each

flock mark for single tagged animals

CPH/

Location

animals

moved to or

from

Haulier’s

name and

registration

number

Running

Total

Own

use

 

Example:

25/08/2010

 

off

 

115

 

UK123456 – 50 lambs UK234567 – 50 lambs

15 cast ewes – not applicable

#

83/536/8300

Lanark Market

 

Self

NL51 VDM

 

 

826

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Date

Event:

e.g.

movement

on/off, dead,

lost

Number

of

animals

Identification:

complete or refer. Individual numbers

required for double tagged animals.

Make clear number of animals with each

flock mark for single tagged animals

CPH/

Location

animals

moved to or

from

Haulier’s

name and

registration

number

Running

Total

Own

use

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Notes for Guidance

Guidance on the requirements that apply to keepers of sheep and goats are provided on page 1 of this booklet.

 

Completing the Continuous Register – Points to Note

 

  1. For moves where the ownership of the animals does not change, identification does not need to be recorded or completed on the movement document. Identification of animals born or first identified before 01/01/2010 does not need to be recorded.
  2. Complete column 4 with identification details or refer to another source, for example, a list of identification numbers in either electronic or paper form. You may elect to use identification numbers provided to the ScotEID database by a CCP for your record, if you do so, you must satisfy yourself that the information is present and correct. If a single movement includes animals with electronic and conventional identifiers, make clear in your record the number of animals with electronic identification.
  3. For movements of animals to shows or exhibitions, the full identification of every animal should be recorded. A record and movement document for each move should be completed – one for moving to the show and one for return, if applicable.

 

The Use of Holding-Based Concessions

 

You may elect to use the concessions listed at points 1 and 2 below. You must apply to your local SGRPID office to obtain the licence described at point 3.

 

When using a concession you do not need to record movement details, complete movement documents or report movement details to SAMU. Animals do not need to be tagged prior to movements between the holdings covered and the flock mark allocated to the main farm code can be used when identifying lambs born on holdings covered. You must register as a keeper with your local Animal Health office for all holdings used.

 

  1. Crofting concession – applies within the same crofting township.
  2. 5-mile concession – applies between the main farm code and seasonal grazing within 5 miles where stock do not mix with those of another keeper. Record the CPH of the seasonal land and the dates of occupancy in your holding register.
  3. Licence – landless keepers (7000 holding code) may apply to operate as if using the 5-mile concession with a main farm code.

 

 

 

 

 

Upgrading Slaughter Lambs

 

Lambs that are less than 12 months of age, and intended for slaughter before reaching 12 months of age, can be tagged with a single tag that shows only the flock mark of the holding of birth. This derogation is in place to make on farm recording easier. Only the flock mark needs to be entered in the records when the animals are identified or moved. Their identification is not required on the movement document.

 

If you decide to keep an animal beyond 12 months of age, it needs to be identified with two

matching tags showing an individual number. This can take place only where the animals are:

 

1. Home bred

2. Animal arrived on the holding, directly or via a market, from its holding of birth.

3. There is a complete record of all the animal’s movements since birth in your holding register.  You must record the details, including or referring to supplementary information, if necessary. You may use the replacement tag record of this holding register. Use breeding tags with the flock mark of the holding the animal is currently on.

Record Keeping in Goat and Sheep Farm

posted Oct 2, 2012, 5:42 AM by Ibrahim Dairy and Livestock Farms

Purpose : Farm records are essential for ascertaining the pedigree, implementing the breeding programme for improvement of the herd, keeping track of various farm efficiency indicators, economical feeding of animals, culling of under-productive animals, stocking and sale of products, and computation of financial data.

1. Individual ewe history sheet

ID no.

Flock no.

Date of birth/

purchase

Single/

Twin

Description

Sire no.

Dam no.

Disposal

Growth Data

Date

Reasons

Remarks

Date

Age

Wt

Remarks

Lambing Data

Date

ID no.

Sex

Birth wt.

Type of birth

Sire no.

Condition of birth

Weaning

Disposal

Age

Weight

Date

Mode

Wool Production

Date

Wool growth

(days)

Sides

Shoulder

Belly

Thigh

Total yield

Grease weight

% of yield

Clean weight

Fineness

Yield

Fineness

Yield

Fineness

Yield

Fineness

Yield

Health Record

Slaughter Data

Date

Condition

Treatment

Remarks

Date

Live weight

Ante-mortem

features

Dressed

weight

Dressing

%

Weight of skin

Remarks


2. Ewe record

Ewe no.

Sire no.

Dam no.

Date

of birth

Birth

weight

Type of

birth

Type of

rearing

Age and weight

at weaning

Shorn fleece

weight

Lamb details

Remarks

3. Ram record

Ram

no.

Sire no.

Dam no.

Date

of birth

Birth

weight

Type of

birth

Type of

rearing

Age and weight

at weaning

Shorn fleece

weight

Progeny

performance

Remarks

4. Lamb crop register

Year

Season

Date ram turned in

Date ram turned out

Ram used

Ewe no.

Date of lambing

Lamb no.

Sex

Birth weight

Type of birth

Nursed by (ewe no.)

Date weaned

Date castrated

120 days weight

Market weight

Disposal mode

Disposal date

Remerks

5. Wool production register

Year

Season

Date

Sheep no.

Days of growth

Sides

Shoulder

Belly

Thigh

Total staple yield length

Grade

Remarks

Fineness

Yield

Fineness

Yield

Fineness

Yield

Fineness

Yield

6. Health register

Date

Animal no.

Complaint

Treatment

Remarks

7. Roll call register

Date

Rams

Ewes

Ram lambs

Ewe lambs

Total

Reason for variation

Remarks


Goat Farming in Sindth Pakistan

posted Oct 2, 2012, 5:19 AM by Ibrahim Dairy and Livestock Farms   [ updated Dec 3, 2012, 9:08 AM ]

Asia and Pacific have a goat population of about 271 million, representing 58% of the total world population. These contribute 62% meat, 49% milk and 62% skin. There are 22 goat indigenous breeds are found in various parts of the world. Animal product contribute over 56 million tons of edible protein and over 1 billion megacalories of energy annually. This protein is equivalent to more than 50% of protein produced from all cereals. The heaviest concentrations are found in China, India, Pakistan, Indonesia and Bangladesh, which is together 78% of the total population in Asia. In Pakistan Damani and Kamori are popular, while in other countries breeds are: Barbari, Beetal, Jamnapari, Malabar and Black Bengal.  
  •  In 1986 the goat population in Pakistan was 17,541,000 heads while in Sindh was 6,755,000 heads.
  • In 1994-95 the male population 1 year and above was 4,275,000 heads:
    • Female 1 year and above was 25,108,000 heads.
    • Young stock less than 1 year was 14,381,000 heads.
    • While the total goat population was 43,764,000 heads.

 

  • In 1994-95 the total milk production was 15.294 million tonnes while goat milk production was 680,000 tonnes.

  • In year 1994-95 estimated meat production was 551,000 tonnes.

  • In 1994-95 the goat skin was 38.1 millions, while total skin was 53.1 millions.
The wild ancestors of the domesticated goat are capra aegagrus of Persia and Asia Minor, Capra falconeri of the Himalayas and Capra prisea of the Mediterranean basin. The Kashmir and Cheghu goat is derived from Capra falconeri. The goat is much more hardy than the sheep and in every respect more fitted to a life of liberty.
 
Animals provide protein and their skin is used for leather and their traction used for agriculture, manure for fertiliser, solid fuel and bio-gas. Goat is not used for craclion. Skin, wool and hairs of goat strengthen the economy of many areas throughout the world. Goat produces generally two young at a time, some time three and in Sindh due to warm climate, some times goat produce four or five kids at a time. The best time of producing off-spring is at the age of 2 years.
 
The slaughter by-products of goat are: blood, spleen, compound stomach, head, hide, shauk, heart, kidney, intestine and liver.
 
Goat industry problems in Sindh are:
  • Low quality of breeding stock.
  • Low availability of improved goat breeds.
  • Poor feeding, neglect housing and herd management and health program.
  • Inefficient marketing of goat meat, milk and skin without auction markets.
  • Poor transportation and handling methods of meat and milk.
  • Lack of technologies for proper goat farming system.

The efficiency of goat production depends to the type of feeding system, level of feeding management and availability of nutrients for high production. The feeding systems by (Devendra 1981) divide into following systems:

  • Village system.
  • Extensive system.
  • Semi-intensive system.
  • Very intensive system.
  • Integration with cropping system.
Routine for feeding and milking

It is described as under:

  • 06.45 a.m. feed, water and milking.
  • 12.00 noon; Hay, roots or any seasonal crop.
  • 6.00 p.m: Feed and water.
  • 7.00 p.m: Milking.
Goat milk composition
 
The milk of goat is sweet, nourishing and medicinal it is not opt to curdle on the stomach as that of cow.
 
The composition is as under:
  • Water: 86.2%
  • Fat: 4.5%
  • Sugar: 4.8%
  • Casine: 2.47%
  • Other Proteins: 0.43%
  • Ash: 0.79%
 
The nutrient requirement of goat depend upon:
 
1) The quantity of nutrients and dietary proportion have to be considered properly.

2) The animal nutritional requirement depend upon the maintenance, growth, milk production and also the level of production based on live weight again or milk production.

3) Diet formula include locally available crop residues, agro-industrial by-products and non-conventional feed stuffs.

4) The diet selected must be nutritionally and economically cheap to afford.

5) The leucaena (L. leucocephala) supplied metabolic energy, protein and minerals

Minerals and vitamins in the diet

The high calcium diet consist of high quality fodder crops-clover, lucerne, oat, tares, hale and comfrey. High phosphate diet consist of cereal and oil cake. The vitamin-A present in green leaves, yellow colour matter of carrots, roots and yellow maize. Some cereals and pulses supply vitamin-B complex. The goat makes vitamin C out of constituents of the blood. The source of vitamin D is sunlight on the substance in the skin. The source of vitamin E is bran or wheat-germ meat.

Rationing standard for the goat are:

  • For maintenance: 0.9Ib (411g) starch equivalent per 1.00Ib body weight; 0.09 (41g) digestible protein per 100 Ibs body weight.
  • For production: 3.25Ibs (1.5 kgs) starch equivalent per gallon (4.5 litres) of milk; 0.5 Ib (227 g) digestible protein per gallon of milk.

Goat Feed

It can contain following feed items:

a) Tree leaves: Elm, horse chestnut, mixed leaves, oak, poplar and willow.

b) Leaves of non-legume plants: Artichoke tops, beet-top, mangold-top, nettles, potato haulm, and turnip tops.

c) Fresh legumes: Alfalfa (Lucerene), alsike, beans, clove, kidney vetch, peas, sainfoin, trefoil.

d) Flowering, cereals and grasses: Barley, back wheat, maize, millet, oats, rye, rye-grass, timothy, pasture grass and rotationally grasses.

e) Roots: Artichokes, carrot, fodder beet, kohlrabi, mangold, parsnips, potatoes, swedes and turnip.

f) Silage: Grass, lucrene, maize, oat, pea haulms and pods, rye, vetch and oats.

g) Natural roughage: Brush wood, gorse, heather-tip, treebark, and sweet chestnut.

h) Hays: Barley, clover, couch grass, lucrerne, meadow, oat, rye, rye grass, clover, vetches, oat, wheat.

i) Dried leaves: Artichoke, beech, chicory, elm, grasses, horse-chestnut, lucerne, oak, poplar, willow.

j) Fruits: Apples, cleavers, elm fruit dry, and rose hips.

k) Legume seeds: Beans, lupins and peas.

l) Oil cake: Cotton seed, ground nut, linseed, palm kernel, sesamum, soybean and sun flower.

Deficiency of mineral in the diet are as under:

The milk of goat is sweet, nourishing and medicinal it is not opt to curdle on the stomach as that of cow.

Acetonaemia, Anemia, blindness (contigious opthalmia) coccidia, coccidia, colic, dermatitis, diarrhoea, eczema, enterotoxaemia, ergot, fluke, foot and mouth disease, gas gangrene, goat pox, Johne’s disease, lactation tetany, lice, louping III, pneumonia, pregnancy toxaemia, ring worm, tetanus, ticks, tympany, and worms.

Bacterial Diseases

Anthrax, brucellosis, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, caseous lymphadenitis, enterotoxemia (pulpy kidney), malignant edema (gas gangrene), mastitis, pasteurellosis, tetanus, clostridum tetan, Johnes disease (paratuberculosis) and tuberculosis.

Viral Diseases

Bluetongue, contagious ecthyma, goat pox, foot and mouth disease, rinder pest, psuedo-rinderpest of goat, leptospirosis, caprine arthritis encephalitis and toxoplasmosis.

Future Research Future research is need in areas of physiology, breeding, reproduction, nutrition, and herd management:

  • Research is needed in goat breeding, reproduction, selection and multiplication, herd-management nutrition, health, processing, utilisation, marketing and socio-economic studies.
  • To study the nature and extent of diseases in goat under various management systems, to minimise the prevailing high mortality rate.
  • To develop efficient methods of processing, storage and improve goat products like meat and milk.
  • To identify genetic factors have link to puberty, morbidity and proliferance.
  • To establish storage by the use of cryopreservation to protect exotic and endangered species.
  • To study breed difference.
  • To study environmental factors effect on reproductive efficiency.
  • To study nutritional requirements.
  • To study the effect of stress on various organs like: thyroid, anterior pituitary and adrenal gland in relation to reproductive behaviour.
  • To study heat detection and silent estrus.
  • To study puberty changes in relation to nutrition.
  • To study rapid selection for genetic traits using monoclonal antibodies for identification of specific gene carriers.
  • To study the gene transplantation to introduce a particular trait into an animal or to correct a genetic defect.
  • To study the animals produced from transferred nuclei selected from cells of the desire phenotype.
  • To study the ovary transplantation to rescue the germplasm of sterile superior females.
  • To study the use of monoclonal antibodies for improving disease diagnostic technique, vaccine production, ova transfer, semen and embryo sexing.
  • To study of testicular hypertrophy.
  • To study parasitic disease, intestinal parasites, viral disease and bacterial diseases.
  • To study year round availability of different types of feed and their nutritional quality.
  • To study to check the micro and macro nutrient requirement in the diet.
  • To study to find goat’s production cycle post-weaning growth, breeding, late gestation and lactation.
  • To study require to check nutritional needs during growth, lactation and pregnancy phases.
  • To study needed to check the grazing goat nutritional requirement this is different than stall-fed goat requirement.
  • To improve utilisation of farm-wastes, by-products, natural fodders and tree leaves.
  • Research required to study and control the disease and parasitic control in goats.
  • To study bacterial, viral, fungal and rickettsial diseases in goats.
  • To needed to study intensive feeding systems, using by-product feeds at different level of nutrition should be evaluated a fattening scheme of goat.
Conclusion
Goat forms an important and integral part of small holder agriculture. They contribute to the livestock industry in terms of milk, meat, skin and some times hair. Appropriate selection of potential meat and dairy goats by means of well-planned artificial insemination program is needed to boost goat industry. Biotechnology is used to reduce the risk of disease in transfer and greatly speed the process of selection, use of monoclonal antibodies for male sexing (identifying male off-spring at fertilisation, adaptation to environment. In female, in vitro fertilisation ooeyte culture, embryo sexing and embryo replication. The biotechnology is used to control breeding, health and nutrition, monoclonal antibody production, embryo-splitting, cloning and sexing of gametes.
 
The future genetic research shall consist of : To transfer of germplasm (embryos and semen), without transmitting diseases, to identify germplasm responsible for resistant of disease and health problem, to identify special germplasm from indigenous species, by the use of monoclonal antibody technology will help to improve genetic selection.
 
In future we have to introduce temperate breeds like: Alpine, Anglo-Nubian, the German Fawn, the La Mancha, the Nubian, the Saanen and the Toggenburg.
 
We need the strengthening the farmer’s ability to produce more livestock products, increase animal populaiton, improve livestock products for domestic demand, industry and exports, provide employment.
References
 
1) Goat production in Asia, Proceeding of the International Seminar on Recent Improvement in Goat Production in Asia, The Philippine Council for Agriculture and Research and Development, 1985, Book Series No.20/1985, 186 p.
 
2) Jean Laing, Goat Husbandry, Faber and Faber, London, 1985, 375 p.
 
3) Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan 1994-95; Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, Economic Wing, Islamabad; 1996; 290 p.
 
4) Devendra C., 1981, Feeding system for goats in the humid tropics, Int. Symp. On Nutrition and Systems of Goat feeding, 12-15th May, 1981, Tours, France, Vol.1, pp.395-410.

Our First Year Raising Goats & Sheep

posted Oct 2, 2012, 5:08 AM by Ibrahim Dairy and Livestock Farms   [ updated Dec 3, 2012, 1:35 AM ]

Posted by Urban Homesteader

In raising goats and sheep for ALMOST a year now (it seems WAY longer), we have learned a few things along the way. And I'm sure we will look back a few years from now and know that we have learned even more!

Of course, everything written in this post is all of our own learning experiences, and NOT those of a professional (a professional would NOT have made as many mistakes as we have!)! I find new and better things to do and try almost every week. So, don't necessarily take our advise on any of these things, but use this as a tool to make some right decisions for YOUR farm.

 
 
That being said, summer is a LOVELY time. It is also GREAT when you can pasture your animals! I know not everyone has the space to give their animals lush, green pastures, but if you do- DO IT! It is such a HUGE savings to the feed bill AND is VERY organic! Think about how God created these animals, He created them to live off the land. These animals are MADE to graze. That being said, I know all of our pastures may not have EVERY nutrient that may be beneficial to your goat, sheep, or other animals. So sometimes you have to make sure they get that!

If you DON'T have pasture area for your goats/sheep, try to give them as much exercise as you can. Though I HAVE pasture areas for my animals, I bought my milking goat, Sophie, from a place where she lived her whole 2 years inside a small pen with another goat. She never got to be outside, and never knew what fresh grass tasted like! I don't think she had ever even seen the sky! So, if you can, get them out. Take them for walks. Take them for short rides in your car! Just get them out somewhere where their instincts can kick in, and they can be and do what they were made to be and do!

Our main pasture, and BEST pasture area was as of one year ago, part of our yard! Yards can look pretty, but the grass doesn't do anything but drain our time. I'm not saying you shouldn't have a lawn! We still have LOTS of yard, BUT don't be afraid to give some of that up if it will help with feed costs of a producing animal! Especially if your time is being eaten by a mower instead of something more productive!

Our lawn was never treated with chemicals to make it grow. Heavens! We would have been mowing every other day, if we did that! And we also have signs on the ends of our property along the road that says "Do Not Spray" that the state put up for us (we called the Indiana Department of Transportation- INDOT). So, our yard is just about as organic as you can get!

When we bought our animals, all animals but our milking goat and a little male that we bought from the same lady, were pastured animals. We pasture them at all times. We don't yet have a shelter outside for them, so when it is really bad weather, we bring them into the barn. They know the way too! In the Winter, they stay in there at night to keep dry, and unless it is really nasty out, I let them out during the day. This may change when we get a little 3 sided shelter built for them.

In the summer, the goats and sheep are almost exclusively grass. We do give them treats (as bribes!) to follows us somewhere or about once ever week or so. Their "treats" consist of grain that we get from a local mill. They do not sell organic there, and I can't even find anyone with in a 3 hours drive that sells organic feed around here! From the mill, we get "sweet feed". Goats AND sheep can eat this and they LIKE IT A LOT. I also give then black oil sunflower seeds. I actually feed those to all of our animals. It helps out as a natural wormer. I also throw some cracked or whole corn in there.

Our milking female is a bit more fussy. She is 2 years old, and she has been raised in a barn all of her life. She had never seen the light of day, and had REALLY never saw grass before we brought her to our farm. She was given a mixture of grains and hay at her former home. So already being set in her ways, we have had to continue with this feeding regimen, so we didn't loose any milk production, though as her milk production has started to drop, we have started to change her feed also! From us she gets a "lactator" feed (alfalfa, or a good alfalfa hay works well), black oil sunflower seeds, a little corn, beet pulp, and some sweet feed. After she is dried out, or as she is drying out, I want her to get used to pasture also. We bring her outside every few days, but she doesn't like it, and she has no interest in the grass at all. It is obviously more expensive to feed her! This will change!

As far as areas that we keep the animals in the barn, there isn't much of an area! Our barn is very small and we make the most out of the room with shelves (LOTS) and 3 decent sized pens. There is a large pen, probably about 12x14 that our two female sheep and their babies stayed in last Winter. This was a good sized space for them, though with GROWN babies this year, we will have to figure out something different. This stall, we also bring animals into that may need some special attention. The stall is kind of like our hospital stall! This is also where we delivered our baby Jacobs this Spring!

We have another stall that is currently the home of Sophie, our milking goat. This stall is about an 8 x 12. She has plenty of space. At one point we actually had 2 grown female goats in that stall, and they had room. Sophie (before we got her) was being kept in a stall about 6x8 WITH another female goat. So the space you keep them in is all in how you see fit. I think they don't need a huge stall if you let them out everyday. But if they are mainly in their stall, or always in their stall, it needs to be bigger. Personal opinion...

There is also another stall, it is about 6x12 and it as another "extra" stall that we will put one animal or another in, if they need to be inside.

In Sophie's stall, we have 3 different containers for her to eat from. One is for water (changed daily), one is for grain, and one is for hay. There are also 3 containers in the big stall, for the same purpose. In the Winter, these containers are outside in the pasture also. The water needs to be changed 2 times a day in the Winter, or if you are lucky enough, you will have a container that will keep your water from freezing! We have to feed them hay in the Winter, because there is no grass in Indiana, though they do try to scratch through the snow to reach it. We also give them grain everyday in the Winter, so they have all of the nutrients they need. We also (I almost forgot) have mineral available to the animals at all times, in the stalls or outside. You can get these by the block or in granular form, we use both. There are many different types of vitamins and minerals that you can find for your animals. Check out the labeling and decide which is best for your farm.

Fencing needed for goats... well, it needs to be sturdy! And we also have ours hooked up to electric. That way they stay off the fences. We live by a moderately busy road, and we DON'T want them to get out! Goats like to climb, and they are good jumpers! We have a fence that is MADE for goats and sheep. Sheep are strong, and both will get out of a wire fence, especially of it doesn't have electric on it! (ask me how I know!)

Never get one goat or sheep. Get 2. If you don't, that one will go looking for a friend. They are escape artists! Plus they will be quieter for you if they have a friend!

Overall, with sheep, they are beautiful! Watching them graze in the pastures is so peaceful. They are like what you see in magazines, when you look at farms. Their wool is awesome! I love having my sheep. Goats are fun. Goats are somewhat mischievous, and very curious. If you buy a baby, make sure you pay attention to them! They are just like a dog. They want to be around you! And they will be very loving animals! Watch out- they like to eat your plants, like strawberries! If you get an adult goat, make sure they are used to human interaction!

Before purchasing ANY of these animals, ask questions. Don't know what questions to ask? Ask a friend who knows, and then ask the seller questions. Better yet, take your friend with you. Don't purchase an animal that you have only seen once. Make 2 or 3 trips. If there is anything that makes you feel uncomfortable about the purchase, don't do it! In purchasing my milking goat, I had never had one before. So, I had no clue what questions to ask, or that I needed to have the seller show me the amount that she milks (because people DO lie! Ask me how I know!), or that I needed to have the seller show me records or the mom and dad of the one I was purchasing (because people lie, and they may lie about the breed of your animals or that they are pure breeds! Ask me how I know!), etc, etc... Experience helps, but you hate to gain the knowledge from being lied to!

All in all, owning goats and/or sheep are rewarding! They are about the next step up from chickens. If you already know how to keep chickens alive, then you might also be able to keep goats or sheep alive!

 

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